Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2018, Page: 46-57
Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Multiple Pathways of Lobelia chinensis in Inhibiting Streptococcus pyogenes
Xiaoying Lin, College of Basic Medical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China
Xiangyu Kong, College of Basic Medical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China
Chengping Wen, College of Basic Medical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China
Zhixing He, College of Basic Medical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China
Received: Mar. 27, 2018;       Accepted: Apr. 15, 2018;       Published: May 19, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajcem.20180602.13      View  742      Downloads  18
Abstract
Clinically, Lobelia chinensis has the potential to treat Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) infections. This study demonstrated that Lobelia chinensis and penicillin have comparative inhibitory effects when their concentration was 12 mg/mL. To uncover the possible pathways of inhibition of GAS by Lobelia chinensis, transcriptome analysis was used to explore significantly changed genes when GAS was cultured under Lobelia chinensi. Lobelia chinensis could induce alterations of 366 genes in expression level, mainly involving biosynthesis process, translation, cytoplasm, and lipid, carbohydrate metabolic process. In addition, penicillin only induced 17 genes alteration and no GO/KEGG pathway enrichment. Therefore, Lobelia chinensis showed more modes of regulating GAS than penicillin. The regulatory modes of Lobelia chinensis may be the inhibition of cell replication and growth of GAS. This study indicated that Lobelia chinens is a potential drug for the treatment of GAS infection due to its considerable inhibition effects and multiple inhibition modes.
Keywords
Lobelia chinensis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Penicillin, Transcriptome
To cite this article
Xiaoying Lin, Xiangyu Kong, Chengping Wen, Zhixing He, Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Multiple Pathways of Lobelia chinensis in Inhibiting Streptococcus pyogenes, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2018, pp. 46-57. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcem.20180602.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
O'Loughlin, R. E., Roberson, A., Cieslak, P. R., Lynfield, R., Gershman, K., Craig, A., Albanese, B. A., Farley, M. M., Barrett, N. L., Spina, N. L., et al. (2007). The epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infection and potential vaccine implications: United States, 2000-2004. Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 45, 853-862.
[2]
Carapetis, J. R., Steer, A. C., Mulholland, E. K., and Weber, M. (2005). The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases. The Lancet. Infectious diseases 5, 685-694.
[3]
Walker, M. J., Barnett, T. C., McArthur, J. D., Cole, J. N., Gillen, C. M., Henningham, A., Sriprakash, K. S., Sanderson-Smith, M. L., and Nizet, V. (2014). Disease manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms of Group A Streptococcus. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 27, 264-301.
[4]
Smeesters, P. R., McMillan, D. J., and Sriprakash, K. S. (2010). The streptococcal M protein: a highly versatile molecule. Trends in Microbiology 18, 275-282.
[5]
Sanderson-Smith, M., De Oliveira, D. M. P., Guglielmini, J., McMillan, D. J., Vu, T., Holien, J. K., Henningham, A., Steer, A. C., Bessen, D. E., Dale, J. B., et al. (2014). A Systematic and Functional Classification of Streptococcus pyogenes That Serves as a New Tool for Molecular Typing and Vaccine Development. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 210, 1325-1338.
[6]
Ogawa, T., Terao, Y., Sakata, H., Okuni, H., Ninomiya, K., Ikebe, K., Maeda, Y., and Kawabata, S. (2011). Epidemiological characterization of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from patients with multiple onsets of pharyngitis. FEMS Microbiology Letters 318, 143-151.
[7]
Ibrahim, S. B., El-Sokkary, R. H., Elhewala, A. A., El-Anwar, M. W., Awad, W. M., Hamed, A. M., and Badawy, I. I. (2014). Emerging resistance to erythromycin and penicillin among Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates in Zagazig, Egypt. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 3, 750-756.
[8]
Xie, C., Kokubun, T., Houghton, P. J., and Simmonds, M. S. (2004). Antibacterial activity of the Chinese traditional medicine, Zi Hua Di Ding. Phytotherapy Research: PTR 18, 497-500.
[9]
Zhao, X., He, X., and Zhong, X. (2016). Anti-inflammatory and in-vitro antibacterial activities of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula Qingdaisan. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 16, 503.
[10]
Zhang, S., Wang, J., Xu, W., Liu, Y., Wang, W., Wu, K., Wang, Z., and Zhang, X. (2015). Antibacterial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine monomers against Streptococcus pneumoniae via inhibiting pneumococcal histidine kinase (VicK). Frontiers in Microbiology 6, 479.
[11]
Yang, S., Shen, T., Zhao, L., Li, C., Zhang, Y., Lou, H., and Ren, D. (2014). Chemical constituents of Lobelia chinensis. Fitoterapia 93, 168-174.
[12]
Leong, W. M. (2013). Screening for antibacterial activity of local plants in Malaysia: Lobelia chinensis and Ipomoea batatas. UTAR.
[13]
Choi, W. H., and Lee, I. A. (2016). The anti-tubercular activity of Melia azedarach L. and Lobelia chinensis Lour. and their potential as effective anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis candidate agents. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 6, 830-835.
[14]
Ghooi, R. B., and Thatte, S. M. (1995). Inhibition of cell wall synthesis--is this the mechanism of action of penicillins? Medical Hypotheses 44, 127-131.
[15]
Domadia, P., Swarup, S., Bhunia, A., Sivaraman, J., and Dasgupta, D. (2007). Inhibition of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ by cinnamaldehyde. Biochemical Pharmacology 74, 831-840.
[16]
Lock, R. L., and Harry, E. J. (2008). Cell-division inhibitors: new insights for future antibiotics. Nature reviews. Drug Discovery 7, 324-338.
[17]
Lee, C. A., and Falkow, S. (1990). The ability of Salmonella to enter mammalian cells is affected by bacterial growth state. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 87, 4304-4308.
[18]
Dramsi, S., Kocks, C., Forestier, C., and Cossart, P. (1993). Internalin-mediated invasion of epithelial cells by Listeria monocytogenes is regulated by the bacterial growth state, temperature and the pleiotropic activator prfA. Molecular Microbiology 9, 931-941.
Browse journals by subject